I addressed this topic in a different context where I cited the Netziv, but just saw that the Aruch haShulchan echoes a similar theme in his introduction to the mitzvah of honoring parents:
"Honoring one's father and mother, being a rational (sichli) command, has spread to every nation and land, and even those who deny Torah observe it because it is rational and natural [to do so]. However, we the Jewish people were commanded regarding every rational commandment not to perform it because our mind tells us to, but because G-d commanded so in his holy Torah..."(Yoreh De'ah 240:2)
Based on this insight, he explains why in the dibros shniyos (Devarim 5:16) the command to honor one's parents adds the clause 'ka'asher tzivcha Hashem Elokecha', as G-d commanded, which is missing in the first dibros (Shmos 20:11). The Jewish people were on a high spiritual level when they received the first dibros and did not need to be told to act only because of G-d's command. However, after the sin of the cheit haeigel when that spiritual level was lost, it became necessary to remind Bnei Yisrael to observe kibbud av not for rational reasons, but simply because G-d commanded us to do so. Is this a polemical derashsa? Sure it is. But I would argue that the derashos of the Aruch haShulchan and Netziv serve as good enough sources on what our attitude toward mitzvah observance should be. I don't think this approach denies that there might be rational reasons that underly mitzva performance (like the Rambam explains), but those reasons do not supplant G-d's command as the motive for mitzvah performance.