An interesting tidbit in the Chasam Sofer on last week's parsha here. He heard that there is a chacham in the umos ha'olam called Copernicus who came up with the idea that the earth revolves around the sun rather than it being the other way around. Chasam Sofer presents the logic as follows: it is unreasonable for the great, powerful sun to serve in orbit around puny earth.
The Chasam Sofer being the Chasam Sofer engages in a little pilpul: if you shoot an arrow straight up and the earth is moving, then shouldn't the arrow land in a different spot than the point from which you shot it? The tietutz obviously is that not only is the earth moving, but its atmosphere, including the arrow, moves along with it. Everything moves together, so the arrow comes back to the same spot.
Chasam Sofer goes on to say that the assumption of Copernicus makes sense only if you are one of the umos ha'olam. L'shitaseinu, the earth's diminutive size relative to the sun doesn't matter -- earth is the tachlis ha'bri'ah, the telos of all creation. The whole universe exists only for us. Therefore, it's not so strange that we should be at the center of it all, the point around which all else revolves.
He weaves this into derush in the pasuk and a pshat in a gemara in Baba Basra that you can take a look at. What I find interesting is that the C.S. lived long after Copernicus, and even long after Galileo. I wonder why he refers only to Copernicus and not Galileo? Could he have never heard of the latter, or maybe he saw Copernicus as the father of heliocentrism and therefore credits him? In either case, did the Chasam Sofer really think the earth was the center of the universe?